Matching arbitrary URL’s to custom Firefox profiles

We’re constantly clicking on all sorts of different URL’s throughout the day. These clickable links appear in webpages (including in “web apps” like gmail) in mail clients like Evolution, in terminals such as GNOME-terminal, and any other GTK+ app on your GNU/Linux desktop. I wanted to perform custom actions when arbitrary URL’s are clicked, including running certain links in separate Firefox profiles. There are a bunch of different steps you have to do to get this working, but it should be easy to follow along. I’m doing all of this on Fedora 23, but it should work on other GNU/Linux environments.

Firefox profiles:

Firefox supports multiple profiles in the same user session so that different users can share a session, or so that a single user can separate tasks into different environments. I’m interested in the latter use case. To add a new profile it’s recommended to close firefox completely, but I didn’t find this to be necessary. When I do close firefox, I like to surprise it with a:

killall -9 firefox

which will also cause any unsaved data in your browser to be lost. To create a new profile, now run firefox with -P:

firefox -P

This will open up a friendly dialog where you can add a new profile. After you’ve done this, my dialog now looks like:

A view of my firefox profiles as shown by running: firefox -P

A view of my firefox profiles as shown by running: firefox -P

to test that it is working, run firefox from the command line:

$ firefox
$ firefox -P ghttps
$ firefox!/purpleidea
$ firefox -P ghttps

You should get two separate sessions, where the commands with -P ghttps should be in your new “ghttps” session (or whatever you named it). Internet searches seem to report that some users can’t run two sessions at the same time without including the --no-remote option, but I didn’t seem to need it. YMMV.

Firefox launcher:

When you run firefox, it usually runs /usr/bin/firefox. I want a more clever launcher, so I’ve created a new bash script named ~/bin/firefox which is part of my path. The contents of this file are:

# run firefox from a terminal, without being attached to it; similar to nohup
# thanks to @purpleidea from
# TODO: a better argv parser and more flexible url matching semantics
# NOTE: first close firefox and make a new profile with `firefox -P`, then set:
protocol='ghttps' # name of fake protocol
profile='ghttps' # name of your new firefox profile
argc=$(($# - 1))
if [ $argc -ge 0 ]; then
    # avoid recursion!
    if [[ "$url" == "$protocol"* ]]; then
        url="https${url:${#protocol}}" # s/ghttps/https/
        argv[$argc]=$url # store it

#echo $url
#echo "`date` ${argv[*]}" >> /tmp/firefox.log

# use a separate profile for special links
if [ "$url" != "" ] && [[ "$url" == "$prefix"* ]]; then
    # firefox with profile
    { `/usr/bin/firefox -P "$profile" "${argv[@]}" &> /dev/null`; } &
    # normal firefox
    { `/usr/bin/firefox "${argv[@]}" &> /dev/null`; } &

Make sure the file is executable with chmod u+x ~/bin/firefox and in your $PATH. Now whenever you run the firefox program, it will automatically run firefox with a profile that corresponds to the pattern of URL that you matched. Feel free to improve this script with a more comprehensive pattern to profile correspondence mechanism.

Default applications:

Whenever any URL is clicked within GNOME, there is a central “Default Applications” setting which decides what application to run. My settings dialog for this control now looks like:

What the GNOME Settings->Details->Default Applications dialog looks like after I made one small change.

What the GNOME Settings->Details->Default Applications dialog looks like after I made the change.

I had to change the “Web” handler to be a “MyFirefox” instead of the previous default of “Firefox”. Those applications are listed in .desktop files which exist on your system. The system wide firefox desktop file is located at: /usr/share/applications/firefox.desktop and although the path to the executable in this file does not set a directory prefix, it unfortunately does not seem to obey my shell $PATH which includes ~/bin/. If you know how to set this so .desktop files include ~/bin/ in their search, then I’d really appreciate it if you left me a comment!

To work around the $PATH issue, I copied the above file into ~/.local/share/applications/firefox.desktop and edited it so that the three Exec= commands include a path prefix of /home/james/bin/. I also renamed the Name= entry so that it was visually obvious that a different .desktop file was in use. This will replace the firefox launcher throughout your desktop and as well in the “Default Applications” menu.

An excerpt of my file showing only the changed sections now looks like:

[Desktop Entry]
Comment=Browse the Web better
Exec=/home/james/bin/firefox %u

[Desktop Action new-window]
Name=Open a New Window
Exec=/home/james/bin/firefox %u

[Desktop Action new-private-window]
Name=Open a New Private Window
Exec=/home/james/bin/firefox --private-window %u

Changing the name is optional, but it might be instructional for you.

It’s important that you not rename the file, because only files which are listed in one of the GNOME mime list files will show up in the “Default Applications” chooser. Once you’ve created the file, you can check in these settings to ensure it’s set as the default.

I forget if you need to close firefox, and logout and then back in to your GNOME session for this to work, so if things aren’t working perfectly by now, ensure you’ve done that once. You can test this by clicking on a link in your terminal and checking to see that it opens the correct firefox.

Redirecting internal firefox links:

Everything should now be working perfectly, until you click on a link within firefox which doesn’t redirect to your shell firefox wrapper. We want this to be seamless, so we’ll have to hack into the firefox API for that. Thankfully there’s a plugin which already does this for us, so we can use it and avoid getting our hands too dirty! It’s called “Redirector“. Install it.

Once installed, there is a settings dialog which can add some pattern matching for us. I set up a basic pattern that corresponds to what I wrote in my ~/bin/firefox shell script. Here’s a screenshot:

A screenshot from the firefox Redirector plugin.

A screenshot from the firefox Redirector plugin.

You can conveniently import and export your redirects from the plugin, and so I’ve included the corresponding .json equivalent for your convenience.

Does everything look correct? Take a second to have a closer look. You might think that I made a typo in the “Redirect to:” field”. There’s no such protocol as ghttps you say? That’s good news, because its use was intentional.

Custom protocol handlers:

Running an external command in response to certain links is what allows them to open external programs such as mail clients, PDF viewers, and image viewers. While some of these functions have been pulled into the browser, the need is still there and this is what we’ll use to trigger our firefox shell script. It’s actually important that we make an external system call because otherwise there would no way for a link in the default browser profile to open in browser profile number two. Running any such command is only possible with a custom or unique protocol. You might be used to seeing https:// for URL’s, but since these are captured by the browser as native links, we need something different. This is what the ghttps:// that we mentioned above is for.

To add a custom protocol, you’ll need to dive into your browsers internal settings. You can do this by typing about:config in the URL bar. You’ll then need to right-click and add four new settings. These are the settings I added:

(string); /home/james/bin/firefox
(boolean) network.protocol-handler.expose.ghttps; false
(boolean) network.protocol-handler.external.ghttps; true
(boolean) network.protocol-handler.warn-external.ghttps; true

Please note that the leading values (in brackets) are the types that you’ll need to use. Omit the semicolons, those separate the key and the corresponding value you should give it. You’ll naturally want to use the correct path to your firefox script.

For reasons unknown to me, it’s required to set these variables, but the protocol handler still requires that you manually verify this once. To do this, I have provided a sample link to my blog using the fake ghttps protocol:


When you click on it the first time, you should be prompted with a confirmation dialog that asks you to reconfirm that you’re okay running this protocol, and the path to the executable. Browse to the ~/bin/firefox and click “Remember my choice for ghttps links”. The dialog looked like this:

You should only need to deal with this dialog once!

You should only need to deal with this dialog once!

If you’re using a different protocol, can you make a simple HTML file and open it up in your browser:

<a href="g">g</a>

At this point you may need to restart firefox. Your new protocol handler is now installed! Enjoy automatically handling special URL’s.


There is one small usability bug which you might experience. If the link that should pattern match out to the protocol exists with a target=_blank (open in new window attribute) then once you’ve activated the link, there will be a leftover blank firefox window to close. This is a known issue in firefox which occurs with other handlers as well. If anyone can work on this issue and/or find me a link to the ticket number, I’d appreciate it.


The curious might wonder what my use-case is. I’ve been forced to use the most unpleasant online google document system. I’ve decided that I didn’t want to share my regular browser profile with this software, but I wanted URL integration to feel seamless, since people like to send the unique document URL’s around by email and chat. The document URL’s usually follow a pattern of:…

where is the domain your organization uses. By setting the above string as the bash firefox $prefix variable, and with a similar pattern in the redirector plugin, you can ensure that you’ll always get documents opening up in browser sessions connected to the correct google account! This is useful if you have multiple google accounts which you wish to automatically segregate to avoid having to constantly switch between them!

Future work:

It would be great to consolidate the patterns as expressed in the Redirector database and the firefox bash script. It would probably make sense to generate a json file that both tools can use. Additional work to extend my bash script would be necessary. Patches welcome!

It would be convenient if there was an easy setup script to automate through the myriad of steps that I took you through to get this all working. If someone can provide a simple bash equivalent, I would love to have it.


I hope you enjoyed this article and this set of techniques! Hopefully you can appreciate how stringing five different techniques together can produce something useful. A big thank you goes out to SlashLife from the #firefox IRC channel. This user pointed me to the Redirector plugin which was critical for intercepting arbitrary URL’s in firefox.

Happy Hacking,


PS: I’d like to apologize for not posting anything in the last three months! I’ve been busy hacking on something big, which I’ll hope to announce soon. Stay tuned and thanks for reading this far!

Thanking Oh-My-Vagrant contributors for version 1.0.0

The Oh-My-Vagrant project became public about one year ago and at the time it was more of a fancy template than a robust project, but 188 commits (and counting) later, it has gotten surprisingly useful and mature.

james@computer:~/code/oh-my-vagrant$ git rev-list HEAD --count
james@computer:~/code/oh-my-vagrant$ git log $(git log --pretty=format:%H|tail -1)
commit 4faa6c89cce01c62130ef5a6d5fa0fff833da371
Author: James Shubin <>
Date:   Thu Aug 28 01:08:03 2014 -0400

    Initial commit of vagrant-puppet-docker-template...
    This is an attempt to prototype a default environment for
    vagrant+puppet+docker hacking. More improvements are needed for it to be
    useful, but it's probably already useful as a reference for now.

It would be easy to take most of the credit for taking the project this far, as I’ve been responsible for about 87% of the commits, but as is common, the numbers don’t tell the whole story. It is also a bug (but hopefully just an artifact) that I’ve had such a large percentage of commits. It’s quite common for a new project to start this way, but for Free Software to succeed long-term, it’s essential that the users become the contributors. Let’s try to change that going forward.

james@computer:~/code/oh-my-vagrant$ git shortlog -s | sort -rn
   165    James Shubin
     5    Vasyl Kaigorodov
     4    Randy Barlow
     2    Scott Collier
     2    Milan Zink
     2    Christoph Görn
     2    aweiteka
     1    scollier
     1    Russell Tweed
     1    ncoghlan
     1    John Browning
     1    Flavio Fernandes
     1    Carsten Clasohm
james@computer:~/code/oh-my-vagrant$ echo '165/188*100' | bc -l

The true story behind these 188 commits is the living history of the past year. Countless hours testing the code, using the project, suggesting features, getting hit by bugs, debugging issues, patching those bugs, and so on… If you could see an accurate graph of the number of hours put into the project, you’d see a much longer list of individuals, and I would have nowhere close to 87% of that breakdown.

Contributions are important!

Contributions are important, and patches especially help. Patches from your users are what make something a community project as opposed to two separate camps of consumers and producers. It’s about time we singled out some of those contributors!

Vasyl Kaigorodov

Vasyl is a great hacker who first fixed the broken networking in OMV. Before his work merged, it was not possible to run two different OMV environments at the same time. Now networking makes a lot more sense. Unfortunately the GitHub contributors graph doesn’t acknowledge his work because he doesn’t have a GitHub account. Shame on them!

Randy Barlow (bowlofeggs)

Randy came up with the idea for “mainstream mode“, and while his initial proof of concept didn’t quite work, the idea was good. His time budget didn’t afford the project this new feature, but he has sent in some other patches including some, tweaks used by the Pulp Vagrantfile. He’s got a patch or two pending on his TODO list which we’re looking forward to, as he finishes the work to port Pulp to OMV.

Scott Collier

Scott is a great model user. He gets very enthusiastic, he’s great at testing things out and complaining if they don’t behave as he’d like, and if you’re lucky, you can brow beat him to write a quick patch or two. He actually has three commits in the project so far, which would show up correctly above if he had set his git user variables correctly ;) Thanks for spending the time to deal with OMV when there was a lot more cruft, and fewer features. I look forward to your next patch!

Milan Zink

Milan is a ruby expert who fixed the ruby xdg bugs we had in an earlier version of the project. Because of his work new users don’t even realize that there was ever an issue!

Christoph Görn

Christoph has been an invaluable promoter and dedicated user of the project. His work pushing OMV to the limit has generated real world requirements and feature requests, which have made the project useful for real users! It’s been hard to say no when he opens an issue ticket, but I’ve been able to force him to write a patch or two as well.

Russell Tweed

Russell is a new OMV user who jumped right into the code and sent in a patch for adding an arbitrary number of disks to OMV machines. As a first time contributor, I thank him for his patch and for withstanding the number of reviews it had to go through. It’s finally merged, even though we might have let one bug (now fixed) slip in too. I particularly like his patch, because I actually wrote the initial patch to add extra disks support to vagrant-libvirt, and I’m pleased to see it get used one level up!

John Browning

John actually found an edge case in the subscription manager code and after an interesting discussion, patched the issue. More users means more edge cases will fall out! Thanks John!

Flavio Fernandes

Even though Flavio is an OSX user, we’re thankful that he wrote and tested the virtualbox patch for OMV. OMV still needs an installer for OSX + mainstream mode, but once that’s done, we know the rest will work great!

Carsten Clasohm

Carsten actually wrote a lovely patch for a subtle OMV issue that is very hard to reproduce. I was able to merge his patch on the first review, and in fact it looked nicer than how I would have written it!

Nick Coghlan

Nick is actually a python hacker, so getting a ruby contribution proved a bit tricky! Fortunately, he is also a master of words, and helped clean up the documentation a bit. We’d love to get a few more doc patches if you have the time and some love!

Aaron Weitekamp

Even though aweiteka (as we call him) has only added five lines of source (2 of which were comments), he was an early user and tester, and we thank him for his contributions! Hopefully we’ll see him in our commit logs in the future!

Máirín Duffy

Máirín is a talented artist who does great work using free tools. I asked her if she’d be kind enough to make us a logo, and I’ll hopefully be able to show it to you soon!

Everyone else

To everyone else who isn’t in the commit log yet, thank you for using and testing OMV, finding bugs, opening issues and even for your social media love in getting the word out! I hope to get a patch from you soon!

The power of the unknown user

They’re sometimes hard to measure, but a recently introduced bug was reported to me independently by two different (and previously unknown) users very soon after the bug was introduced! I’m sorry for letting the bug in, but I am glad that people picked up on it so quickly! I’d love to have your help in improving our automated test infrastructure!

The AUTHORS file

Every good project needs a “hall of fame” for its contributors. That’s why, starting today there is an AUTHORS file, and if you’re a contributor, we urge you to send a one-line patch with your name, so it can be immortalized in the project forever. We could try to generate this file with git log, but that would remove the prestige behind getting your first and second patches in. If you’re not in the AUTHORS file, and you should be, send me your patch already!

Version 1.0.0

I think it’s time. The project deserves a 1.0.0 release, and I’ve now made it so. Please share and enjoy!

I hope you enjoy this project, and I look forward to receiving your patch.

Happy Hacking!


PS: Thanks to Brian Bouterse for encouraging me to focus on community, and for inspiring me to write this post!

Vagrant and Oh-My-Vagrant on RHEL7

My employer keeps paying me, which I appreciate, so it’s good to spend some time to make sure RHEL7 customers get a great developer experience! So here’s how to make vagrant, vagrant-libvirt and Oh-My-Vagrant work on RHEL 7+. The same steps should work for CentOS 7+.

I’ll first paste the commands you need to run, and then I’ll explain what’s happening for those that are interested:

# run these commands, and then get hacking!
# this requires the rhel-7-server-optional-rpms repo enabled
sudo subscription-manager repos --enable rhel-7-server-optional-rpms
sudo yum install -y gcc ruby-devel libvirt-devel libvirt qemu-kvm
sudo systemctl start libvirtd.service
sudo yum install -y vagrant_1.7.4_x86_64.rpm
vagrant plugin install vagrant-libvirt
sudo cp -a purpleidea-vagrant-libvirt-epel-7.repo /etc/yum.repos.d/
sudo yum install -y vagrant-libvirt    # noop plugin for oh-my-vagrant dependency
sudo cp -a purpleidea-oh-my-vagrant-epel-7.repo /etc/yum.repos.d/
sudo yum install -y oh-my-vagrant
. /etc/profile.d/ # logout/login or source

Let’s go through it line by line.

sudo subscription-manager repos --enable rhel-7-server-optional-rpms

Make sure you have the optional repos enabled, which are needed for the ruby-devel package.

sudo yum install -y gcc ruby-devel libvirt-devel libvirt
sudo systemctl start libvirtd.service

Other than the base os, these are the dependencies you’ll need. If you have some sort of super minimal installation, and find that there is another dependency needed, please let me know and I’ll update this article. Usually libvirt is already installed, and libvirtd is started, but this includes those two operations in case they are needed.

sudo yum install -y vagrant_1.7.4_x86_64.rpm

Vagrant has finally landed in Fedora 22, but unfortunately it’s not in RHEL or any of the software collections yet. As a result, we install it from the upstream.

vagrant plugin install vagrant-libvirt

Similarly, vagrant-libvirt hasn’t been packaged for RHEL either, so we’ll install it into the users home directory via the vagrant plugin system.

sudo cp -a purpleidea-vagrant-libvirt-epel-7.repo /etc/yum.repos.d/
sudo yum install -y vagrant-libvirt    # noop plugin for oh-my-vagrant dependency

Since there isn’t a vagrant-libvirt RPM, and because the RPM’s for Oh-My-Vagrant depend on that “requires” to install correctly, I built an empty vagrant-libvirt RPM so that Oh-My-Vagrant thinks the dependency has been met in system wide RPM land, when it’s actually been met in the user specific home directory space. I couldn’t think of a better way to do this, and as a result, you get to read about the exercise that prompted my recent “empty RPM” article.

sudo cp -a purpleidea-oh-my-vagrant-epel-7.repo /etc/yum.repos.d/
sudo yum install -y oh-my-vagrant

This last part installs Oh-My-Vagrant from the COPR. There is no “dnf enable” command in RHEL, so we manually wget the repo file into place.

. /etc/profile.d/ # logout/login or source

Lastly if you’d like to reuse your current terminal session, source the /etc/profile.d/ file that is installed, otherwise close and reopen your terminal.

You’ll need to do an omv init at least once to make sure all the user plugins are installed, and you should be ready for your first vagrant up! Please note, that the above process definitely includes some dirty workarounds until vagrant is more easily consumable in RHEL, but I wanted to get you hacking earlier rather than later!

I hope this article helps you hack it out in RHEL land, be sure to read about how to build your own custom RHEL vagrant boxes too!

Happy Hacking,


Making an empty RPM

I am definitely not an RPM expert, in fact, I’m afraid of it, but with recent tools such as COPR, and my glorious Makefile, some aspects of it have become palatable. This post will be about a recent journey I had building the most useless RPM ever.

A video of what my work building this RPM looked like.

A video of my journey building this RPM.

Because of reasons, I wanted to satisfy an RPM dependency for a package that I wanted to install without rebuilding that RPM. As a result, I wanted to build as small an RPM as possible. This took me down a much longer path than I thought it would.

Step 1: The empty spec file

I thought this would be easy. It turns out it was not. Here’s what happened…

james@computer:/tmp/rpmbuild$ cat vagrant-libvirt.spec
%global project_version 0.0.24

Name:       vagrant-libvirt
Version:    0.0.24
Release:    noop
Summary:    A fake vagrant-libvirt RPM
License:    AGPLv3+
BuildArch:  noarch

Requires:   vagrant >= 1.6.5

A fake vagrant-libvirt RPM

%setup -c -q -T -D -a 0




james@computer:/tmp/rpmbuild$ rpmbuild -bs vagrant-libvirt.spec 
error: No "Source:" tag in the spec file

Amazingly, rpmbuild fails to build without specifying a Source0 directive. Gah… As an aside, yes the License field was also required, or it won’t build either! So let’s create a dummy RPM to use as the source!

Step 2: The empty tarball

james@computer:/tmp/rpmbuild$ tar -cjf vagrant-libvirt-noop.tar.bz2
tar: Cowardly refusing to create an empty archive
Try 'tar --help' or 'tar --usage' for more information.

Apparently tar doesn’t want to cooperate either! Maybe these utilities have some sort of ingrained existential fear of nothingness? I can work around this though.

Step 3: The empty file

james@computer:/tmp/rpmbuild$ echo hello > README
james@computer:/tmp/rpmbuild$ tar -cjf vagrant-libvirt-noop.tar.bz2 README
james@computer:/tmp/rpmbuild$ echo $?
james@computer:/tmp/rpmbuild$ cat vagrant-libvirt.spec
%global project_version 0.0.24

Name:       vagrant-libvirt
Version:    0.0.24
Release:    noop
Summary:    A fake vagrant-libvirt RPM
License:    AGPLv3+
Source0:    vagrant-libvirt-noop.tar.bz2
BuildArch:  noarch

Requires:   vagrant >= 1.6.5

A fake vagrant-libvirt RPM

%setup -c -q -T -D -a 0





Okay great! Now to build the RPM…

Step 4: The empty RPM

james@computer:/tmp/rpmbuild$ mkdir SOURCES
james@computer:/tmp/rpmbuild$ mv vagrant-libvirt-noop.tar.bz2 SOURCES/
james@computer:/tmp/rpmbuild$ rpmbuild --define "_topdir $(pwd)/" -bs vagrant-libvirt.spec
Wrote: /tmp/rpmbuild/SRPMS/vagrant-libvirt-0.0.24-noop.src.rpm
james@computer:/tmp/rpmbuild$ rpmbuild --define "_topdir $(pwd)/" -bb vagrant-libvirt.spec
Executing(%prep): /bin/sh -e /var/tmp/rpm-tmp.dUivHv
+ umask 022
+ cd /tmp/rpmbuild//BUILD
+ cd /tmp/rpmbuild/BUILD
+ /usr/bin/mkdir -p vagrant-libvirt-0.0.24
+ cd vagrant-libvirt-0.0.24
+ /usr/bin/bzip2 -dc /tmp/rpmbuild/SOURCES/vagrant-libvirt-noop.tar.bz2
+ /usr/bin/tar -xf -
+ '[' 0 -ne 0 ']'
+ /usr/bin/chmod -Rf a+rX,u+w,g-w,o-w .
+ exit 0
Executing(%build): /bin/sh -e /var/tmp/rpm-tmp.kLSHn2
+ umask 022
+ cd /tmp/rpmbuild//BUILD
+ cd vagrant-libvirt-0.0.24
+ exit 0
Executing(%install): /bin/sh -e /var/tmp/rpm-tmp.xTiM4y
+ umask 022
+ cd /tmp/rpmbuild//BUILD
+ '[' /tmp/rpmbuild/BUILDROOT/vagrant-libvirt-0.0.24-noop.x86_64 '!=' / ']'
+ rm -rf /tmp/rpmbuild/BUILDROOT/vagrant-libvirt-0.0.24-noop.x86_64
++ dirname /tmp/rpmbuild/BUILDROOT/vagrant-libvirt-0.0.24-noop.x86_64
+ mkdir -p /tmp/rpmbuild/BUILDROOT
+ mkdir /tmp/rpmbuild/BUILDROOT/vagrant-libvirt-0.0.24-noop.x86_64
+ cd vagrant-libvirt-0.0.24
+ /usr/lib/rpm/ --strict-build-id -m --run-dwz --dwz-low-mem-die-limit 10000000 --dwz-max-die-limit 110000000 /tmp/rpmbuild//BUILD/vagrant-libvirt-0.0.24
/usr/lib/rpm/sepdebugcrcfix: Updated 0 CRC32s, 0 CRC32s did match.
+ /usr/lib/rpm/check-rpaths /usr/lib/rpm/check-buildroot
+ /usr/lib/rpm/brp-compress
+ /usr/lib/rpm/brp-strip-static-archive /usr/bin/strip
+ /usr/lib/rpm/brp-python-bytecompile /usr/bin/python 1
+ /usr/lib/rpm/brp-python-hardlink
+ /usr/lib/rpm/redhat/brp-java-repack-jars
Processing files: vagrant-libvirt-0.0.24-noop.noarch
Checking for unpackaged file(s): /usr/lib/rpm/check-files /tmp/rpmbuild/BUILDROOT/vagrant-libvirt-0.0.24-noop.x86_64
Wrote: /tmp/rpmbuild/RPMS/noarch/vagrant-libvirt-0.0.24-noop.noarch.rpm
Executing(%clean): /bin/sh -e /var/tmp/rpm-tmp.0lR0a6
+ umask 022
+ cd /tmp/rpmbuild//BUILD
+ cd vagrant-libvirt-0.0.24
+ /usr/bin/rm -rf /tmp/rpmbuild/BUILDROOT/vagrant-libvirt-0.0.24-noop.x86_64
+ exit 0

This worked too! It has some interesting output though…

james@computer:/tmp/rpmbuild$ rpm -qlp RPMS/noarch/vagrant-libvirt-0.0.24-noop.noarch.rpm
(contains no files)
james@computer:/tmp/rpmbuild$ ls -lAh RPMS/noarch/vagrant-libvirt-0.0.24-noop.noarch.rpm
-rw-rw-r--. 1 james 5.5K Aug 11 11:53 RPMS/noarch/vagrant-libvirt-0.0.24-noop.noarch.rpm

As you can see this has created an empty RPM, but which is about 5k in size. While this worked, builds submitted in COPR don’t generate any output. I suppose this is a bug in COPR, but in the meantime, I still wanted something working. I added some nonsense to the spec file to continue.

Step 5: The final product

james@computer:/tmp/rpmbuild$ cat vagrant-libvirt.spec 
%global project_version 0.0.24

Name:       vagrant-libvirt
Version:    0.0.24
Release:    noop
Summary:    A fake vagrant-libvirt RPM
License:    AGPLv3+
Source0:    vagrant-libvirt-noop.tar.bz2
BuildArch:  noarch

Requires:   vagrant >= 1.6.5

A fake vagrant-libvirt RPM

%setup -c -q -T -D -a 0


rm -rf %{buildroot}
# _datadir is typically /usr/share/
install -d -m 0755 %{buildroot}/%{_datadir}/vagrant-libvirt/
echo "This is a phony vagrant-libvirt package." > %{buildroot}/%{_datadir}/vagrant-libvirt/README



After running the usual build commands, and sticking an SRPM up in COPR, this builds and installs as expected! Phew! There might a manual way to do this with cpio, but I wanted to use the official tools, and avoid hacking the spec.

Perhaps there is a simpler way to workaround all of this, but until I find it, I hope you’ve enjoyed my story,

Happy Hacking!


UPDATE: Reader Jan pointed out, that you could use fpm to accomplish the same thing with a one-liner. The modified one-liner is:

fpm -s empty -t rpm -d 'vagrant >= 1.6.5' -n vagrant-libvirt -v 0.0.24 --iteration noop

This is a much shorter and more elegant solution, with the one exception that fpm doesn’t currently produce SRPMS, which are needed so that a trusted build service like COPR distributes them to the users.

Here’s the full output and comparison and anyways:

james@computer:/tmp/ftest$ fpm -s empty -t rpm -d 'vagrant >= 1.6.5' -n vagrant-libvirt -v 0.0.24 --iteration noop
no value for epoch is set, defaulting to nil {:level=>:warn}
no value for epoch is set, defaulting to nil {:level=>:warn}
Created package {:path=>"vagrant-libvirt-0.0.24-noop.x86_64.rpm"}
james@computer:/tmp/ftest$ sha1sum vagrant-libvirt-0.0.24-noop.x86_64.rpm 61b1c200d2efa87d790a2243ccbc4c4ebb7ef64d  vagrant-libvirt-0.0.24-noop.x86_64.rpm
james@computer:/tmp/ftest$ sha1sum ~/code/oh-my-vagrant/extras/.rpmbuild/RPMS/noarch/vagrant-libvirt-0.0.24-noop.noarch.rpm 
5f2abb15264de6c1c7f09039945cd7bbd3a96404  /home/james/code/oh-my-vagrant/extras/.rpmbuild/RPMS/noarch/vagrant-libvirt-0.0.24-noop.noarch.rpm

While the two sha1sums aren’t identical (probably due to timestamps or some other variant) the two RPM’s should be functionally identical.

Golang parallelism issues causing “too many open files” error

I’ve been hacking in golang for a while, but I’ll admit that I didn’t get too deep into some of the language nuances until more recently. Since some of them have started to bite me, here’s a little post-mortem of one of the problems I was having.

After hacking and testing code all day, I made a seemingly innocuous change, and when running my program, I saw the following error:

2015/07/10 14:34:12 too many open files

I didn’t know what I broke, but it was obviously my fault. I reverted my recent changes, but still the error persisted. Internet searches and many painful hours of debugging ensued.

I had definitely hit some sort of heisenbug.

I had definitely hit some sort of Heisenbug.

What had gone wrong? Digging around my system, I noticed something weird in my ps output:

$ ps auxww | grep go
james     3446  0.0  0.1 197392  9240 pts/4    Sl   11:48   0:00 go run ./main.go
james     3457  0.0  0.0   6268  1980 pts/4    Sl   11:48   0:00 /tmp/go-build030949627/command-line-arguments/_obj/exe/event
james     3487  0.0  0.1 197392  9184 pts/4    Sl   11:49   0:00 go run ./main.go
james     3501  0.0  0.0   6268  2040 pts/4    Sl   11:49   0:00 /tmp/go-build037131602/command-line-arguments/_obj/exe/event
james     3556  0.0  0.1 197392  9168 pts/4    Sl   11:49   0:00 go run ./main.go
james     3567  0.0  0.0   6268  1976 pts/4    Sl   11:49   0:00 /tmp/go-build957487534/command-line-arguments/_obj/exe/event
james     3788  0.0  0.0 197392  1636 pts/4    Sl   Jul04   0:07 go run ./main.go
james     3800  0.0  0.0   5180  1944 pts/4    Sl   Jul04   0:01 /tmp/go-build552106841/command-line-arguments/_obj/exe/event

Hoards and hoards of lingering go build artefacts, were still running. At one time I noticed over 42 of these! I quickly killed them all off:

# processes are named `event`, and I don't have any unrelated event processes running.
$ killall -9 event
kernel: ahh, much better! :)

Which brought my program back to life! Heisenbug gone… or was it? I soon noticed, that each time I ran my program, the left over process count would increment by one. What was causing this? After another session of debugging, I found that these leftovers were caused by a lack of clean up due to some buggy code. That buggy code is the interesting part. Let’s look at it:

for v := range obj.GetSomeChannel() {
    fmt.Printf("Processing: %v\n", v.Name)
    // BAD
    go func() {
        defer wg.Done()
        v.Start() // some method
        fmt.Printf("Finished: %v\n", v.Name)

I’m not sure how common this issue is, so if you’re not yet familiar with it, take a moment to try and figure it out.

Okay. The issue is that when you iterate through the loop, the v value which is passed in to the function (the closure) is actually referencing the memory space of v. As a result, whenever the v value changes (as it does in the loop) the v variable instantly contains the new value, and the go routine will see the value of whatever it happens to be when it uses it.

To get around this race (and it is a race) you need to copy in the value to the goroutine:

for v := range obj.GetSomeChannel() {
    fmt.Printf("Processing: %v\n", v.Name)
    // GOOD
    go func(v *Objtype) {
        defer wg.Done()
            v.Start() // some method
        fmt.Printf("Finished: %v\n", v.Name)


It so happens that v is a pointer, but that’s irrelevant. The value of the pointer still needs to be copied in to the goroutine that is being called to use it. In my case, v needs to be a pointer, because we want the same copy of our data to be used throughout the code.

Many thanks to bleidl for helping me with some of the analysis!

As a quick aside, I’m using this WaitGroup pattern, which replaced the much uglier version of this loop which I had previously written. For a language that claims to not be pattern and idiom heavy, there sure are a bunch that I’ve found so far, many of which come with gotchas.

Happy hacking!


Git archive with submodules and tar magic

Git submodules are actually a very beautiful thing. You might prefer the word powerful or elegant, but that’s not the point. The downside is that they are sometimes misused, so as always, use with care. I’ve used them in projects like puppet-gluster, oh-my-vagrant, and others. If you’re not familiar with them, do a bit of reading and come back later, I’ll wait.

I recently did some work packaging Oh-My-Vagrant as RPM’s. My primary goal was to make sure the entire process was automatic, as I have no patience for manually building RPM’s. Any good packager knows that the pre-requisite for building a SRPM is a source tarball, and I wanted to build those automatically too.

Simply running a tar -cf on my source directory wouldn’t work, because I only want to include files that are stored in git. Thankfully, git comes with a tool called git archive, which does exactly that! No scary tar commands required:

Nobody likes tar

Here’s how you might run it:

$ git archive --prefix=some-project/ -o output.tar.bz2 HEAD

Let’s decompose:

The --prefix argument prepends a string prefix onto every file in the archive. Therefore, if you’d like the root directory to be named some-project, then you prepend that string with a trailing slash, and you’ll have everything nested inside a directory!

The -o flag predictably picks the output file and format. Using .tar.bz2 is quite common.

Lastly, the HEAD portion at the end specifies which git tree to pull the files from. I usually specify a git tag here, but you can specify a commit id if you prefer.

Obligatory, "make this article more interesting" meme image.

Obligatory, “make this article more interesting” meme image.

This is all well and good, but unfortunately, when I open my newly created archive, it is notably missing my git submodules! It would probably make sense for there to be an upstream option so that a --recursive flag would do this magic for you, but unfortunately it doesn’t exist yet.

There are a few scripts floating around that can do this, but I wanted something small, and without any real dependencies, that I can embed in my project Makefile, so that it’s all self-contained.

Here’s what that looks like:

    @echo Running git archive...
    # use HEAD if tag doesn't exist yet, so that development is easier...
    git archive --prefix=oh-my-vagrant-$(VERSION)/ -o $(SOURCE) $(VERSION) 2> /dev/null || (echo 'Warning: $(VERSION) does not exist.' && git archive --prefix=oh-my-vagrant-$(VERSION)/ -o $(SOURCE) HEAD)
    # TODO: if git archive had a --submodules flag this would easier!
    @echo Running git archive submodules...
    # i thought i would need --ignore-zeros, but it doesn't seem necessary!
    p=`pwd` && (echo .; git submodule foreach) | while read entering path; do \
        temp="$${path%\'}"; \
        temp="$${temp#\'}"; \
        path=$$temp; \
        [ "$$path" = "" ] && continue; \
        (cd $$path && git archive --prefix=oh-my-vagrant-$(VERSION)/$$path/ HEAD > $$p/rpmbuild/tmp.tar && tar --concatenate --file=$$p/$(SOURCE) $$p/rpmbuild/tmp.tar && rm $$p/rpmbuild/tmp.tar); \

This is a bit tricky to read, so I’ll try to break it down. Remember, double dollar signs are used in Make syntax for embedded bash code since a single dollar sign is a special Make identifier. The $(VERSION) variable corresponds to the version of the project I’m building, which matches a git tag that I’ve previously created. $(SOURCE) corresponds to an output file name, ending in the .tar.bz2 suffix.

    p=`pwd` && (echo .; git submodule foreach) | while read entering path; do \

In this first line, we store the current working directory for use later, and then loop through the output of the git submodule foreach command. That output normally looks something like this:

james@computer:~/code/oh-my-vagrant$ git submodule foreach 
Entering 'vagrant/gems/xdg'
Entering 'vagrant/kubernetes/templates/default'
Entering 'vagrant/p4h'
Entering 'vagrant/puppet/modules/module-data'
Entering 'vagrant/puppet/modules/puppet'
Entering 'vagrant/puppet/modules/stdlib'
Entering 'vagrant/puppet/modules/yum'

As you can see, this shows that the above read command, eats up the Entering string, and pulls the quoted path into the second path variable. The next part of the code:

        temp="$${path%\'}"; \
        temp="$${temp#\'}"; \
        path=$$temp; \
        [ "$$path" = "" ] && continue; \

uses bash idioms to remove the two single quotes that wrap our string, and then skip over any empty versions of the path variable in our loop. Lastly, for each submodule found, we first switch into that directory:

        (cd $$path &&

Run a normal git archive command and create a plain uncompressed tar archive in a temporary directory:

git archive --prefix=oh-my-vagrant-$(VERSION)/$$path/ HEAD > $$p/rpmbuild/tmp.tar &&

Then use the magic of tar to overlay this new tar file, on top of the source file that we’re now building up with each iteration of this loop, and then remove the temporary file.

tar --concatenate --file=$$p/$(SOURCE) $$p/rpmbuild/tmp.tar && rm $$p/rpmbuild/tmp.tar); \

Finally, we end the loop:


Boom, magic! Short, concise, and without any dependencies but bash and git.

Nobody should have to figure that out by themselves, and I wish it was built in to git, but until then, here’s how it’s done! Many thanks to #git on IRC for pointing me in the right direction.

This is the commit where I landed this patch for oh-my-vagrant, if you’re curious to see this in the wild. Now that this is done, I can definitely say that it was worth the time:

Is it worth the time? In this case, it was.

With this feature merged, along with my automatic COPR builds, a simple ‘make rpm‘, causes all of this automation to happen, and delivers a fresh build from git in a few minutes.

I hope you enjoyed this technique, and I hope you have some coding skills to get this feature upstream in git.

Happy Hacking,


Oh-My-Vagrant “Mainstream” mode and COPR RPM’s

Making Oh-My-Vagrant (OMV) more developer accessible and easy to install (from a distribution package like RPM) has always been a goal, but was previously never a priority. This is all sorted out now. In this article, I’ll explain how “mainstream” mode works, and how the RPM work was done. (I promise this will be somewhat interesting!)


If you haven’t read any of the previous articles about Oh-My-Vagrant, I’d recommend you start there. Many of the articles include screencasts, and combined with the examples/ folder, this is probably the best way to learn OMV, because the documentation could use some love.


OMV is now easily installable on Fedora 22 via COPR. It probably works on other distros and versions, but I haven’t tested all of those combinations. This is a colossal improvement from when I first posted about this publicly in 2013. There is still one annoying bug that I occasionally hit. Let me know if you can reproduce.

Install from COPR:

james@computer:~$ sudo dnf copr enable purpleidea/oh-my-vagrant

You are about to enable a Copr repository. Please note that this
repository is not part of the main Fedora distribution, and quality
may vary.

The Fedora Project does not exercise any power over the contents of
this repository beyond the rules outlined in the Copr FAQ at
, and
packages are not held to any quality or security level.

Please do not file bug reports about these packages in Fedora
Bugzilla. In case of problems, contact the owner of this repository.

Do you want to continue? [y/N]: y
Repository successfully enabled.
james@computer:~$ sudo dnf install oh-my-vagrant
Last metadata expiration check performed 0:05:08 ago on Tue Jul  7 22:58:45 2015.
Dependencies resolved.
 Package           Arch     Version            Repository                  Size
 oh-my-vagrant     noarch   0.0.7-1            purpleidea-oh-my-vagrant   270 k
 vagrant           noarch   1.7.2-7.fc22       updates                    428 k
 vagrant-libvirt   noarch   0.0.26-2.fc22      fedora                      57 k

Transaction Summary
Install  3 Packages

Total download size: 755 k
Installed size: 2.5 M
Is this ok [y/N]: n
Operation aborted.
james@computer:~$ sudo dnf install -y oh-my-vagrant
Last metadata expiration check performed 0:05:19 ago on Tue Jul  7 22:58:45 2015.
Dependencies resolved.
 Package           Arch     Version            Repository                  Size
 oh-my-vagrant     noarch   0.0.7-1            purpleidea-oh-my-vagrant   270 k
 vagrant           noarch   1.7.2-7.fc22       updates                    428 k
 vagrant-libvirt   noarch   0.0.26-2.fc22      fedora                      57 k

Transaction Summary
Install  3 Packages

Total download size: 755 k
Installed size: 2.5 M
Downloading Packages:
(1/3): vagrant-1.7.2-7.fc22.noarch.rpm          626 kB/s | 428 kB     00:00    
(2/3): vagrant-libvirt-0.0.26-2.fc22.noarch.rpm  70 kB/s |  57 kB     00:00    
(3/3): oh-my-vagrant-0.0.7-1.noarch.rpm         243 kB/s | 270 kB     00:01    
Total                                           246 kB/s | 755 kB     00:03     
Running transaction check
Transaction check succeeded.
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded.
Running transaction
  Installing  : vagrant-1.7.2-7.fc22.noarch                                 1/3 
  Installing  : vagrant-libvirt-0.0.26-2.fc22.noarch                        2/3 
  Installing  : oh-my-vagrant-0.0.7-1.noarch                                3/3 
  Verifying   : oh-my-vagrant-0.0.7-1.noarch                                1/3 
  Verifying   : vagrant-libvirt-0.0.26-2.fc22.noarch                        2/3 
  Verifying   : vagrant-1.7.2-7.fc22.noarch                                 3/3 

  oh-my-vagrant.noarch 0.0.7-1                vagrant.noarch 1.7.2-7.fc22       
  vagrant-libvirt.noarch 0.0.26-2.fc22       


If you’d like to avoid typing passwords over and over again when using vagrant, you can add yourself into the vagrant group. 99% of people do this. The downside is that it could allow your user account to get root privileges. Since most developers have a single user environment, it’s not a big issue. This is necessary because vagrant uses the qemu:///system connection instead of qemu:///session. If you can help fix this, please hack on it.

james@computer:~$ groups
james wheel docker
james@computer:~$ sudo usermod -aG vagrant james
# you'll need to logout/login for this change to take effect...

Lastly, there is a user session plugin addition that is required. Installation is automatic the first time you create a new OMV project. Let’s do that and see how it works!

james@computer:~$ mkdir /tmp/omvtest
james@computer:~$ cd !$
cd /tmp/omvtest
james@computer:/tmp/omvtest$ which omv
james@computer:/tmp/omvtest$ omv init
Oh-My-Vagrant needs to install a modified vagrant-hostmanager plugin.
Is this ok [y/N]: y
Cloning into 'vagrant-hostmanager'...
remote: Counting objects: 801, done.
remote: Total 801 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0), pack-reused 801
Receiving objects: 100% (801/801), 132.22 KiB | 0 bytes/s, done.
Resolving deltas: 100% (467/467), done.
Checking connectivity... done.
Branch feat/oh-my-vagrant set up to track remote branch feat/oh-my-vagrant from origin.
Switched to a new branch 'feat/oh-my-vagrant'
sending incremental file list

sent 20,560 bytes  received 286 bytes  41,692.00 bytes/sec
total size is 19,533  speedup is 0.94
Patched successfully!
Current machine states:

omv1                      not created (libvirt)

The Libvirt domain is not created. Run `vagrant up` to create it.
james@computer:/tmp/omvtest$ ls
ansible/  docker/  kubernetes/  omv.yaml  puppet/  shell/

You can see that the plugin installation worked perfectly, and that OMV created a few files and folders.

More usage:

You can hide that generated mess in a subfolder if you prefer:

james@computer:/tmp/omvtest$ mkdir /tmp/omvtest2
james@computer:/tmp/omvtest$ cd !$
cd /tmp/omvtest2
james@computer:/tmp/omvtest2$ omv init mess
Current machine states:

omv1                      not created (libvirt)

The Libvirt domain is not created. Run `vagrant up` to create it.
james@computer:/tmp/omvtest2$ ls
mess/  omv.yaml@
james@computer:/tmp/omvtest2$ ls -lAh
total 0
drwxrwxr-x. 7 james 160 Jul  7 23:26 mess/
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 james  13 Jul  7 23:26 omv.yaml -> mess/omv.yaml
drwxrwxr-x. 3 james  60 Jul  7 23:26 .vagrant/
james@computer:/tmp/omvtest2$ tree
├── mess
│   ├── ansible
│   │   └── modules
│   ├── docker
│   ├── kubernetes
│   │   ├── applications
│   │   └── templates
│   ├── omv.yaml
│   ├── puppet
│   │   └── modules
│   └── shell
└── omv.yaml -> mess/omv.yaml

10 directories, 2 files

As you can see all the mess is wrapped up in a single folder. This could even be named .omv if you prefer, and should all be committed inside of your project. Now that we’re installed, let’s get hacking!

Mainstream mode:

Mainstream mode further hides the ruby/Vagrantfile aspect of a Vagrant project and extends OMV so that you can define your entire project via the omv.yaml file, without the rest of the OMV project cluttering up your development tree. This makes it possible to have your project use OMV by only committing that one yaml file into the project repo.

The main difference is that you now control everything with the new omv command line tool. It’s essentially a smart wrapper around the vagrant command, so any command you used to use vagrant for, you can now substitute in omv. It also saves typing four extra characters!

As it turns out (and by no accident) the omv tool works exactly like the vagrant tool. For example:

james@computer:/tmp/omvtest2$ omv status
Current machine states:

omv1                      not created (libvirt)

The Libvirt domain is not created. Run `vagrant up` to create it.
james@computer:/tmp/omvtest2$ omv up
Bringing machine 'omv1' up with 'libvirt' provider...
==> omv1: Box 'centos-7.1' could not be found. Attempting to find and install...
    omv1: Box Provider: libvirt
    omv1: Box Version: >= 0
==> omv1: Adding box 'centos-7.1' (v0) for provider: libvirt
    omv1: Downloading:
james@computer:/tmp/omvtest2$ omv destroy
Unlocking shell provisioning for: omv1...
==> omv1: Domain is not created. Please run `vagrant up` first.


The existing tools you know and love, like vlog, vsftp, vscreen, vcssh, vfwd, vansible, have all been modified to work with OMV mainstream mode as well. The same goes for common aliases such as vs, vp, vup, vdestroy, vrsync, and the useful (but occasionally dangerous) vrm-rf. Have a look at the above links on my blog and the source to see what these do. If it’s not clear enough, let me know!

All of these are now packaged up in the oh-my-vagrant COPR and are installed automatically into /etc/profile.d/ for your convenience. Since they’re part of the OMV project, you’ll get updates when new functions or bug fixes are made.

The plumbing:

Mainstream mode is possible because of an idea rbarlow had. He gets full credit for the idea, in particular for teaching me about VAGRANT_CWD which is what makes it all work. I rejected his 6 line prototype, but loved the idea, and since he was busy making juice, I got bored one day and hacked on a full implementation.

james@computer:~/code/oh-my-vagrant$ git diff --stat 853073431d227cbb0ba56aaf4fedd721904de9a8 aa764ae79d69475b87f293c43af4f20fd7d1d000    | 18 +++++++++++++++
 bin/          | 50 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 vagrant/Vagrantfile | 65 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-------------------
 3 files changed, 110 insertions(+), 23 deletions(-)

It turned out it was a little longer, but I artificially inflated this by including some quick doc patches. What does it actually do differently? It sets VAGRANT_CWD and VAGRANT_DOTFILE_PATH so that the vagrant command looks in a different directory for the Vagrantfile and .vagrant/ directories. That way, all the plumbing is hidden and part of the RPM.

Making the RPM:

The RPM’s happened because stefw made me feel bad about not having them. He was right to do so. In an case, RPM packaging still scares me. I think repetitive work scares me even more. That’s why I automate as much as I can. So after a lot of brain loss, I finally made you an RPM so that you could easily install it. Here’s how it went:

I started by adding the magic so that my Makefile could build an RPM.

This made it so I can easily run make srpm to get a new RPM or SRPM.

Then I added COPR integration, so a make copr automatically kicks off a new COPR build. This was the interesting part. You’ll need a Fedora account for this to work. Once you’re logged in, if you go to you’ll be able to download a snippet to put in your ~/.config/copr file. Lastly, the work happens in where the python copr library does the heavy lifting.


# for initial setup, browse to:
# and it will have a ~/.config/copr config that you can download.
# happy hacking!

import os
import sys
import copr

COPR = 'oh-my-vagrant'
if len(sys.argv) != 2:
    print("Usage: %s &lt;srpm url&gt;" % sys.argv[0])

url = sys.argv[1]

client = copr.CoprClient.create_from_file_config(os.path.expanduser("~/.config/copr"))

result = client.create_new_build(COPR, [url])
if result.output != "ok":

A build looks like this:

james@computer:~/code/oh-my-vagrant$ git tag 0.0.8 # set a new tag
james@computer:~/code/oh-my-vagrant$ make copr 
Running templater...
Running git archive...
Running git archive submodules...
Running rpmbuild -bs...
Wrote: /home/james/code/oh-my-vagrant/rpmbuild/SRPMS/oh-my-vagrant-0.0.8-1.src.rpm
Running SRPMS sha256sum...
Running SRPMS gpg...

You need a passphrase to unlock the secret key for
user: "James Shubin (Third PGP key.) <>"
4096-bit RSA key, ID 24090D66, created 2012-05-09

gpg: WARNING: The GNOME keyring manager hijacked the GnuPG agent.
gpg: WARNING: GnuPG will not work properly - please configure that tool to not interfere with the GnuPG system!
Running SRPMS upload...
sending incremental file list

sent 8,583 bytes  received 2,184 bytes  4,306.80 bytes/sec
total size is 1,456,741  speedup is 135.30
Build was added to oh-my-vagrant.

A few minutes later, the COPR build page should look like this:

a screenshot of the Oh-My-Vagrant COPR build page for people who like to look at pretty pictures instead of just terminal output

A screenshot of the Oh-My-Vagrant COPR build page for people who like to look at pretty pictures instead of just terminal output.

There was a bunch of additional fixing and polishing required to get this as seamless as possible for you. Have a look at the git commits and you’ll get an idea of all the work that was done, and you’ll probably even learn about some new, features I haven’t blogged about yet. It was exhausting!

omv-exhaustedAs a result of all this, you can download fresh builds easily. Visit the COPR page to see how things are cooking:

I’ll try to keep this pumping out releases regularly. If I lag behind, please holler at me. In any case, please let me know if you appreciate this work. Comment, tweeter, or contact me!

Happy Hacking,