Oh-My-Vagrant “Mainstream” mode and COPR RPM’s

Making Oh-My-Vagrant (OMV) more developer accessible and easy to install (from a distribution package like RPM) has always been a goal, but was previously never a priority. This is all sorted out now. In this article, I’ll explain how “mainstream” mode works, and how the RPM work was done. (I promise this will be somewhat interesting!)

Prerequisites:

If you haven’t read any of the previous articles about Oh-My-Vagrant, I’d recommend you start there. Many of the articles include screencasts, and combined with the examples/ folder, this is probably the best way to learn OMV, because the documentation could use some love.

Installation:

OMV is now easily installable on Fedora 22 via COPR. It probably works on other distros and versions, but I haven’t tested all of those combinations. This is a colossal improvement from when I first posted about this publicly in 2013. There is still one annoying bug that I occasionally hit. Let me know if you can reproduce.

Install from COPR:

james@computer:~$ sudo dnf copr enable purpleidea/oh-my-vagrant

You are about to enable a Copr repository. Please note that this
repository is not part of the main Fedora distribution, and quality
may vary.

The Fedora Project does not exercise any power over the contents of
this repository beyond the rules outlined in the Copr FAQ at
, and
packages are not held to any quality or security level.

Please do not file bug reports about these packages in Fedora
Bugzilla. In case of problems, contact the owner of this repository.

Do you want to continue? [y/N]: y
Repository successfully enabled.
james@computer:~$ sudo dnf install oh-my-vagrant
Last metadata expiration check performed 0:05:08 ago on Tue Jul  7 22:58:45 2015.
Dependencies resolved.
================================================================================
 Package           Arch     Version            Repository                  Size
================================================================================
Installing:
 oh-my-vagrant     noarch   0.0.7-1            purpleidea-oh-my-vagrant   270 k
 vagrant           noarch   1.7.2-7.fc22       updates                    428 k
 vagrant-libvirt   noarch   0.0.26-2.fc22      fedora                      57 k

Transaction Summary
================================================================================
Install  3 Packages

Total download size: 755 k
Installed size: 2.5 M
Is this ok [y/N]: n
Operation aborted.
james@computer:~$ sudo dnf install -y oh-my-vagrant
Last metadata expiration check performed 0:05:19 ago on Tue Jul  7 22:58:45 2015.
Dependencies resolved.
================================================================================
 Package           Arch     Version            Repository                  Size
================================================================================
Installing:
 oh-my-vagrant     noarch   0.0.7-1            purpleidea-oh-my-vagrant   270 k
 vagrant           noarch   1.7.2-7.fc22       updates                    428 k
 vagrant-libvirt   noarch   0.0.26-2.fc22      fedora                      57 k

Transaction Summary
================================================================================
Install  3 Packages

Total download size: 755 k
Installed size: 2.5 M
Downloading Packages:
(1/3): vagrant-1.7.2-7.fc22.noarch.rpm          626 kB/s | 428 kB     00:00    
(2/3): vagrant-libvirt-0.0.26-2.fc22.noarch.rpm  70 kB/s |  57 kB     00:00    
(3/3): oh-my-vagrant-0.0.7-1.noarch.rpm         243 kB/s | 270 kB     00:01    
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total                                           246 kB/s | 755 kB     00:03     
Running transaction check
Transaction check succeeded.
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded.
Running transaction
  Installing  : vagrant-1.7.2-7.fc22.noarch                                 1/3 
  Installing  : vagrant-libvirt-0.0.26-2.fc22.noarch                        2/3 
  Installing  : oh-my-vagrant-0.0.7-1.noarch                                3/3 
  Verifying   : oh-my-vagrant-0.0.7-1.noarch                                1/3 
  Verifying   : vagrant-libvirt-0.0.26-2.fc22.noarch                        2/3 
  Verifying   : vagrant-1.7.2-7.fc22.noarch                                 3/3 

Installed:
  oh-my-vagrant.noarch 0.0.7-1                vagrant.noarch 1.7.2-7.fc22       
  vagrant-libvirt.noarch 0.0.26-2.fc22       

Complete!
james@computer:~$

If you’d like to avoid typing passwords over and over again when using vagrant, you can add yourself into the vagrant group. 99% of people do this. The downside is that it could allow your user account to get root privileges. Since most developers have a single user environment, it’s not a big issue. This is necessary because vagrant uses the qemu:///system connection instead of qemu:///session. If you can help fix this, please hack on it.

james@computer:~$ groups
james wheel docker
james@computer:~$ sudo usermod -aG vagrant james
# you'll need to logout/login for this change to take effect...

Lastly, there is a user session plugin addition that is required. Installation is automatic the first time you create a new OMV project. Let’s do that and see how it works!

james@computer:~$ mkdir /tmp/omvtest
james@computer:~$ cd !$
cd /tmp/omvtest
james@computer:/tmp/omvtest$ which omv
/usr/bin/omv
james@computer:/tmp/omvtest$ omv init
Oh-My-Vagrant needs to install a modified vagrant-hostmanager plugin.
Is this ok [y/N]: y
Cloning into 'vagrant-hostmanager'...
remote: Counting objects: 801, done.
remote: Total 801 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0), pack-reused 801
Receiving objects: 100% (801/801), 132.22 KiB | 0 bytes/s, done.
Resolving deltas: 100% (467/467), done.
Checking connectivity... done.
Branch feat/oh-my-vagrant set up to track remote branch feat/oh-my-vagrant from origin.
Switched to a new branch 'feat/oh-my-vagrant'
sending incremental file list
./
vagrant-hostmanager.rb
vagrant-hostmanager/
vagrant-hostmanager/action.rb
vagrant-hostmanager/command.rb
vagrant-hostmanager/config.rb
vagrant-hostmanager/errors.rb
vagrant-hostmanager/plugin.rb
vagrant-hostmanager/provisioner.rb
vagrant-hostmanager/util.rb
vagrant-hostmanager/version.rb
vagrant-hostmanager/action/
vagrant-hostmanager/action/update_all.rb
vagrant-hostmanager/action/update_guest.rb
vagrant-hostmanager/action/update_host.rb
vagrant-hostmanager/hosts_file/
vagrant-hostmanager/hosts_file/updater.rb

sent 20,560 bytes  received 286 bytes  41,692.00 bytes/sec
total size is 19,533  speedup is 0.94
Patched successfully!
Current machine states:

omv1                      not created (libvirt)

The Libvirt domain is not created. Run `vagrant up` to create it.
james@computer:/tmp/omvtest$ ls
ansible/  docker/  kubernetes/  omv.yaml  puppet/  shell/
james@computer:/tmp/omvtest$

You can see that the plugin installation worked perfectly, and that OMV created a few files and folders.

More usage:

You can hide that generated mess in a subfolder if you prefer:

james@computer:/tmp/omvtest$ mkdir /tmp/omvtest2
james@computer:/tmp/omvtest$ cd !$
cd /tmp/omvtest2
james@computer:/tmp/omvtest2$ omv init mess
Current machine states:

omv1                      not created (libvirt)

The Libvirt domain is not created. Run `vagrant up` to create it.
james@computer:/tmp/omvtest2$ ls
mess/  omv.yaml@
james@computer:/tmp/omvtest2$ ls -lAh
total 0
drwxrwxr-x. 7 james 160 Jul  7 23:26 mess/
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 james  13 Jul  7 23:26 omv.yaml -> mess/omv.yaml
drwxrwxr-x. 3 james  60 Jul  7 23:26 .vagrant/
james@computer:/tmp/omvtest2$ tree
.
├── mess
│   ├── ansible
│   │   └── modules
│   ├── docker
│   ├── kubernetes
│   │   ├── applications
│   │   └── templates
│   ├── omv.yaml
│   ├── puppet
│   │   └── modules
│   └── shell
└── omv.yaml -> mess/omv.yaml

10 directories, 2 files
james@computer:/tmp/omvtest2$

As you can see all the mess is wrapped up in a single folder. This could even be named .omv if you prefer, and should all be committed inside of your project. Now that we’re installed, let’s get hacking!

Mainstream mode:

Mainstream mode further hides the ruby/Vagrantfile aspect of a Vagrant project and extends OMV so that you can define your entire project via the omv.yaml file, without the rest of the OMV project cluttering up your development tree. This makes it possible to have your project use OMV by only committing that one yaml file into the project repo.

The main difference is that you now control everything with the new omv command line tool. It’s essentially a smart wrapper around the vagrant command, so any command you used to use vagrant for, you can now substitute in omv. It also saves typing four extra characters!

As it turns out (and by no accident) the omv tool works exactly like the vagrant tool. For example:

james@computer:/tmp/omvtest2$ omv status
Current machine states:

omv1                      not created (libvirt)

The Libvirt domain is not created. Run `vagrant up` to create it.
james@computer:/tmp/omvtest2$ omv up
Bringing machine 'omv1' up with 'libvirt' provider...
==> omv1: Box 'centos-7.1' could not be found. Attempting to find and install...
    omv1: Box Provider: libvirt
    omv1: Box Version: >= 0
==> omv1: Adding box 'centos-7.1' (v0) for provider: libvirt
    omv1: Downloading: https://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/alt/purpleidea/vagrant/centos-7.1/centos-7.1.box
[snip]
james@computer:/tmp/omvtest2$ omv destroy
Unlocking shell provisioning for: omv1...
==> omv1: Domain is not created. Please run `vagrant up` first.
james@computer:/tmp/omvtest2$

BUT THAT’S NOT ALL…

The existing tools you know and love, like vlog, vsftp, vscreen, vcssh, vfwd, vansible, have all been modified to work with OMV mainstream mode as well. The same goes for common aliases such as vs, vp, vup, vdestroy, vrsync, and the useful (but occasionally dangerous) vrm-rf. Have a look at the above links on my blog and the source to see what these do. If it’s not clear enough, let me know!

All of these are now packaged up in the oh-my-vagrant COPR and are installed automatically into /etc/profile.d/oh-my-vagrant.sh for your convenience. Since they’re part of the OMV project, you’ll get updates when new functions or bug fixes are made.

The plumbing:

Mainstream mode is possible because of an idea rbarlow had. He gets full credit for the idea, in particular for teaching me about VAGRANT_CWD which is what makes it all work. I rejected his 6 line prototype, but loved the idea, and since he was busy making juice, I got bored one day and hacked on a full implementation.

james@computer:~/code/oh-my-vagrant$ git diff --stat 853073431d227cbb0ba56aaf4fedd721904de9a8 aa764ae79d69475b87f293c43af4f20fd7d1d000
 DOCUMENTATION.md    | 18 +++++++++++++++
 bin/omv.sh          | 50 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 vagrant/Vagrantfile | 65 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-------------------
 3 files changed, 110 insertions(+), 23 deletions(-)
james@computer:~/code/oh-my-vagrant$

It turned out it was a little longer, but I artificially inflated this by including some quick doc patches. What does it actually do differently? It sets VAGRANT_CWD and VAGRANT_DOTFILE_PATH so that the vagrant command looks in a different directory for the Vagrantfile and .vagrant/ directories. That way, all the plumbing is hidden and part of the RPM.

Making the RPM:

The RPM’s happened because stefw made me feel bad about not having them. He was right to do so. In an case, RPM packaging still scares me. I think repetitive work scares me even more. That’s why I automate as much as I can. So after a lot of brain loss, I finally made you an RPM so that you could easily install it. Here’s how it went:

I started by adding the magic so that my Makefile could build an RPM.

This made it so I can easily run make srpm to get a new RPM or SRPM.

Then I added COPR integration, so a make copr automatically kicks off a new COPR build. This was the interesting part. You’ll need a Fedora account for this to work. Once you’re logged in, if you go to https://copr.fedoraproject.org/api you’ll be able to download a snippet to put in your ~/.config/copr file. Lastly, the work happens in copr-build.py where the python copr library does the heavy lifting.

#!/usr/bin/python

# README:
# for initial setup, browse to: https://copr.fedoraproject.org/api/
# and it will have a ~/.config/copr config that you can download.
# happy hacking!

import os
import sys
import copr

COPR = 'oh-my-vagrant'
if len(sys.argv) != 2:
    print("Usage: %s <srpm url>" % sys.argv[0])
    sys.exit(1)

url = sys.argv[1]

client = copr.CoprClient.create_from_file_config(os.path.expanduser("~/.config/copr"))

result = client.create_new_build(COPR, [url])
if result.output != "ok":
    print(result.error)
    sys.exit(1)
print(result.message)

A build looks like this:

james@computer:~/code/oh-my-vagrant$ git tag 0.0.8 # set a new tag
james@computer:~/code/oh-my-vagrant$ make copr 
Running templater...
Running git archive...
Running git archive submodules...
Running rpmbuild -bs...
Wrote: /home/james/code/oh-my-vagrant/rpmbuild/SRPMS/oh-my-vagrant-0.0.8-1.src.rpm
Running SRPMS sha256sum...
/home/james/code/oh-my-vagrant
Running SRPMS gpg...

You need a passphrase to unlock the secret key for
user: "James Shubin (Third PGP key.) <james@shubin.ca>"
4096-bit RSA key, ID 24090D66, created 2012-05-09

gpg: WARNING: The GNOME keyring manager hijacked the GnuPG agent.
gpg: WARNING: GnuPG will not work properly - please configure that tool to not interfere with the GnuPG system!
Running SRPMS upload...
sending incremental file list
SHA256SUMS
SHA256SUMS.asc
oh-my-vagrant-0.0.8-1.src.rpm

sent 8,583 bytes  received 2,184 bytes  4,306.80 bytes/sec
total size is 1,456,741  speedup is 135.30
Build was added to oh-my-vagrant.
james@computer:~/code/oh-my-vagrant$

A few minutes later, the COPR build page should look like this:

a screenshot of the Oh-My-Vagrant COPR build page for people who like to look at pretty pictures instead of just terminal output

A screenshot of the Oh-My-Vagrant COPR build page for people who like to look at pretty pictures instead of just terminal output.

There was a bunch of additional fixing and polishing required to get this as seamless as possible for you. Have a look at the git commits and you’ll get an idea of all the work that was done, and you’ll probably even learn about some new, features I haven’t blogged about yet. It was exhausting!

omv-exhaustedAs a result of all this, you can download fresh builds easily. Visit the COPR page to see how things are cooking:

https://copr.fedoraproject.org/coprs/purpleidea/oh-my-vagrant/

I’ll try to keep this pumping out releases regularly. If I lag behind, please holler at me. In any case, please let me know if you appreciate this work. Comment, tweeter, or contact me!

Happy Hacking,

James

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A super privileged Puppet container

In this new crazy world of containers and immutable hosts, one might still want to run previous generation software such as Puppet on a current generation Atomic host. This article will explain how you can do that, and offer some proof of concept code.

The atomic host doesn’t provide a yum or dnf command, because the software is pre-baked into a read-only /usr/ partition. To “install” (to use) additional software, it usually needs to be distributed and run as a container.

The Dockerfile which describes the docker container that we will build, has two important sections:

ENV FACTER_fqdn=localhost
ENTRYPOINT ["puppet", "apply"]

The ENTRYPOINT verb causes docker to run the puppet command that we built into the container, when the container is run with externally provided arguments. The ENV verb causes some facter errors to be suppressed, since facter isn’t running on the host. The rest of the file contains boilerplate and other build/run dependencies.

You can build this container yourself manually, or if you are an Oh-My-Vagrant user, then you can use the supplied omv.yaml file to build the container automatically. A build with Oh-My-Vagrant looks like this:

$ time vup omv1
Bringing machine 'omv1' up with 'libvirt' provider...
==> omv1: Creating image (snapshot of base box volume).
==> omv1: Creating domain with the following settings...
==> omv1:  -- Name:              omv_omv1
==> omv1:  -- Domain type:       kvm
==> omv1:  -- Cpus:              1
==> omv1:  -- Memory:            512M
==> omv1:  -- Base box:          centos-7.1-docker
==> omv1:  -- Storage pool:      default
==> omv1:  -- Image:             /var/lib/libvirt/images/omv_omv1.img
==> omv1:  -- Volume Cache:      default
==> omv1:  -- Kernel:            
==> omv1:  -- Initrd:            
==> omv1:  -- Graphics Type:     vnc
==> omv1:  -- Graphics Port:     5900
==> omv1:  -- Graphics IP:       127.0.0.1
==> omv1:  -- Graphics Password: Not defined
==> omv1:  -- Video Type:        cirrus
==> omv1:  -- Video VRAM:        9216
==> omv1:  -- Keymap:            en-us
==> omv1:  -- Command line : 
==> omv1: Starting domain.
==> omv1: Waiting for domain to get an IP address...
==> omv1: Waiting for SSH to become available...
==> omv1: Starting domain.
==> omv1: Waiting for domain to get an IP address...
==> omv1: Waiting for SSH to become available...
==> omv1: Creating shared folders metadata...
==> omv1: Setting hostname...
==> omv1: Rsyncing folder: /home/james/code/oh-my-vagrant/vagrant/ => /vagrant
==> omv1: Configuring and enabling network interfaces...
==> omv1: Updating /etc/hosts file on active guest machines...
==> omv1: Running provisioner: shell...
    omv1: Running: inline script
==> omv1: Running provisioner: shell...
    omv1: Running: inline script
==> omv1: Running provisioner: docker...
    omv1: Configuring Docker to autostart containers...
==> omv1: Running provisioner: docker...
    omv1: Configuring Docker to autostart containers...
==> omv1: Building Docker images...
==> omv1: -- Path: /vagrant/docker/spc-puppet-apply
==> omv1: Sending build context to Docker daemon 122.9 kB
==> omv1: Sending build context to Docker daemon 
==> omv1: Step 0 : FROM centos:7
==> omv1:  ---> 0114405f9ff1
==> omv1: Step 1 : MAINTAINER James Shubin <james@shubin.ca>
==> omv1:  ---> Running in 2dbdc37494e9
==> omv1:  ---> e154b3cfed7f
==> omv1: Removing intermediate container 2dbdc37494e9
==> omv1: Step 2 : RUN echo Hello from purpleidea and aweiteka > README
==> omv1:  ---> Running in 97475154152f
==> omv1:  ---> e4728d71caac
==> omv1: Removing intermediate container 97475154152f
==> omv1: Step 3 : ADD el7-puppet.repo /etc/yum.repos.d/
==> omv1:  ---> c591e0a9a54d
==> omv1: Removing intermediate container 24e55893313c
==> omv1: Step 4 : ADD RPM-GPG-KEY-puppetlabs /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/
==> omv1:  ---> 223549fbf661
==> omv1: Removing intermediate container 2bceb998f1c3
==> omv1: Step 5 : RUN yum install -y puppet
==> omv1:  ---> Running in e44c9cf55dc5
==> omv1: Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
==> omv1: Determining fastest mirrors
==> omv1:  * base: centos.mirror.vexxhost.com
==> omv1:  * extras: mirror.gpmidi.net
==> omv1:  * updates: centos.mirror.vexxhost.com
==> omv1: Resolving Dependencies
==> omv1: --> Running transaction check
==> omv1: ---> Package puppet.noarch 0:3.7.5-1.el7 will be installed
==> omv1: --> Processing Dependency: ruby >= 1.8 for package: puppet-3.7.5-1.el7.noarch
==> omv1: --> Processing Dependency: facter >= 1:1.7.0 for package: puppet-3.7.5-1.el7.noarch
==> omv1: --> Processing Dependency: ruby >= 1.8.7 for package: puppet-3.7.5-1.el7.noarch
==> omv1: --> Processing Dependency: hiera >= 1.0.0 for package: puppet-3.7.5-1.el7.noarch
==> omv1: --> Processing Dependency: rubygem-json for package: puppet-3.7.5-1.el7.noarch
==> omv1: --> Processing Dependency: libselinux-utils for package: puppet-3.7.5-1.el7.noarch
==> omv1: --> Processing Dependency: ruby-augeas for package: puppet-3.7.5-1.el7.noarch
==> omv1: --> Processing Dependency: ruby(selinux) for package: puppet-3.7.5-1.el7.noarch
==> omv1: --> Processing Dependency: /usr/bin/ruby for package: puppet-3.7.5-1.el7.noarch
==> omv1: --> Processing Dependency: ruby-shadow for package: puppet-3.7.5-1.el7.noarch
==> omv1: --> Running transaction check
==> omv1: ---> Package facter.x86_64 1:2.4.3-1.el7 will be installed
==> omv1: --> Processing Dependency: net-tools for package: 1:facter-2.4.3-1.el7.x86_64
==> omv1: --> Processing Dependency: virt-what for package: 1:facter-2.4.3-1.el7.x86_64
==> omv1: --> Processing Dependency: pciutils for package: 1:facter-2.4.3-1.el7.x86_64
==> omv1: --> Processing Dependency: dmidecode for package: 1:facter-2.4.3-1.el7.x86_64
==> omv1: ---> Package hiera.noarch 0:1.3.4-1.el7 will be installed
==> omv1: ---> Package libselinux-ruby.x86_64 0:2.2.2-6.el7 will be installed
==> omv1: ---> Package libselinux-utils.x86_64 0:2.2.2-6.el7 will be installed
==> omv1: ---> Package ruby.x86_64 0:2.0.0.598-24.el7 will be installed
==> omv1: --> Processing Dependency: ruby-libs(x86-64) = 2.0.0.598-24.el7 for package: ruby-2.0.0.598-24.el7.x86_64
==> omv1: --> Processing Dependency: rubygem(bigdecimal) >= 1.2.0 for package: ruby-2.0.0.598-24.el7.x86_64
==> omv1: --> Processing Dependency: ruby(rubygems) >= 2.0.14 for package: ruby-2.0.0.598-24.el7.x86_64
==> omv1: --> Processing Dependency: libruby.so.2.0()(64bit) for package: ruby-2.0.0.598-24.el7.x86_64
==> omv1: ---> Package ruby-augeas.x86_64 0:0.4.1-3.el7 will be installed
==> omv1: --> Processing Dependency: augeas-libs >= 0.8.0 for package: ruby-augeas-0.4.1-3.el7.x86_64
==> omv1: --> Processing Dependency: libaugeas.so.0(AUGEAS_0.8.0)(64bit) for package: ruby-augeas-0.4.1-3.el7.x86_64
==> omv1: --> Processing Dependency: libaugeas.so.0(AUGEAS_0.1.0)(64bit) for package: ruby-augeas-0.4.1-3.el7.x86_64
==> omv1: --> Processing Dependency: libaugeas.so.0(AUGEAS_0.12.0)(64bit) for package: ruby-augeas-0.4.1-3.el7.x86_64
==> omv1: --> Processing Dependency: libaugeas.so.0(AUGEAS_0.10.0)(64bit) for package: ruby-augeas-0.4.1-3.el7.x86_64
==> omv1: --> Processing Dependency: libaugeas.so.0(AUGEAS_0.11.0)(64bit) for package: ruby-augeas-0.4.1-3.el7.x86_64
==> omv1: --> Processing Dependency: libaugeas.so.0()(64bit) for package: ruby-augeas-0.4.1-3.el7.x86_64
==> omv1: ---> Package ruby-shadow.x86_64 1:2.2.0-2.el7 will be installed
==> omv1: ---> Package rubygem-json.x86_64 0:1.7.7-24.el7 will be installed
==> omv1: --> Running transaction check
==> omv1: ---> Package augeas-libs.x86_64 0:1.1.0-17.el7 will be installed
==> omv1: ---> Package dmidecode.x86_64 1:2.12-5.el7 will be installed
==> omv1: ---> Package net-tools.x86_64 0:2.0-0.17.20131004git.el7 will be installed
==> omv1: ---> Package pciutils.x86_64 0:3.2.1-4.el7 will be installed
==> omv1: --> Processing Dependency: pciutils-libs = 3.2.1-4.el7 for package: pciutils-3.2.1-4.el7.x86_64
==> omv1: --> Processing Dependency: libpci.so.3(LIBPCI_3.2)(64bit) for package: pciutils-3.2.1-4.el7.x86_64
==> omv1: --> Processing Dependency: libpci.so.3(LIBPCI_3.1)(64bit) for package: pciutils-3.2.1-4.el7.x86_64
==> omv1: --> Processing Dependency: libpci.so.3(LIBPCI_3.0)(64bit) for package: pciutils-3.2.1-4.el7.x86_64
==> omv1: --> Processing Dependency: hwdata for package: pciutils-3.2.1-4.el7.x86_64
==> omv1: --> Processing Dependency: libpci.so.3()(64bit) for package: pciutils-3.2.1-4.el7.x86_64
==> omv1: ---> Package ruby-libs.x86_64 0:2.0.0.598-24.el7 will be installed
==> omv1: ---> Package rubygem-bigdecimal.x86_64 0:1.2.0-24.el7 will be installed
==> omv1: ---> Package rubygems.noarch 0:2.0.14-24.el7 will be installed
==> omv1: --> Processing Dependency: rubygem(rdoc) >= 4.0.0 for package: rubygems-2.0.14-24.el7.noarch
==> omv1: --> Processing Dependency: rubygem(psych) >= 2.0.0 for package: rubygems-2.0.14-24.el7.noarch
==> omv1: --> Processing Dependency: rubygem(io-console) >= 0.4.2 for package: rubygems-2.0.14-24.el7.noarch
==> omv1: ---> Package virt-what.x86_64 0:1.13-5.el7 will be installed
==> omv1: --> Running transaction check
==> omv1: ---> Package hwdata.noarch 0:0.252-7.5.el7 will be installed
==> omv1: ---> Package pciutils-libs.x86_64 0:3.2.1-4.el7 will be installed
==> omv1: ---> Package rubygem-io-console.x86_64 0:0.4.2-24.el7 will be installed
==> omv1: ---> Package rubygem-psych.x86_64 0:2.0.0-24.el7 will be installed
==> omv1: --> Processing Dependency: libyaml-0.so.2()(64bit) for package: rubygem-psych-2.0.0-24.el7.x86_64
==> omv1: ---> Package rubygem-rdoc.noarch 0:4.0.0-24.el7 will be installed
==> omv1: --> Processing Dependency: ruby(irb) = 2.0.0.598 for package: rubygem-rdoc-4.0.0-24.el7.noarch
==> omv1: --> Running transaction check
==> omv1: ---> Package libyaml.x86_64 0:0.1.4-11.el7_0 will be installed
==> omv1: ---> Package ruby-irb.noarch 0:2.0.0.598-24.el7 will be installed
==> omv1: --> Finished Dependency Resolution
==> omv1: 
==> omv1: Dependencies Resolved
==> omv1: 
==> omv1: ================================================================================
==> omv1:  Package            Arch   Version                    Repository           Size
==> omv1: ================================================================================
==> omv1: Installing:
==> omv1:  puppet             noarch 3.7.5-1.el7                puppetlabs-products 1.5 M
==> omv1: Installing for dependencies:
==> omv1:  augeas-libs        x86_64 1.1.0-17.el7               base                332 k
==> omv1:  dmidecode          x86_64 1:2.12-5.el7               base                 78 k
==> omv1:  facter             x86_64 1:2.4.3-1.el7              puppetlabs-products  98 k
==> omv1:  hiera              noarch 1.3.4-1.el7                puppetlabs-products  23 k
==> omv1:  hwdata             noarch 0.252-7.5.el7              base                2.0 M
==> omv1:  libselinux-ruby    x86_64 2.2.2-6.el7                base                127 k
==> omv1:  libselinux-utils   x86_64 2.2.2-6.el7                base                135 k
==> omv1:  libyaml            x86_64 0.1.4-11.el7_0             base                 55 k
==> omv1:  net-tools          x86_64 2.0-0.17.20131004git.el7   base                304 k
==> omv1:  pciutils           x86_64 3.2.1-4.el7                base                 90 k
==> omv1:  pciutils-libs      x86_64 3.2.1-4.el7                base                 45 k
==> omv1:  ruby               x86_64 2.0.0.598-24.el7           base                 67 k
==> omv1:  ruby-augeas        x86_64 0.4.1-3.el7                puppetlabs-deps      22 k
==> omv1:  ruby-irb           noarch 2.0.0.598-24.el7           base                 88 k
==> omv1:  ruby-libs          x86_64 2.0.0.598-24.el7           base                2.8 M
==> omv1:  ruby-shadow        x86_64 1:2.2.0-2.el7              puppetlabs-deps      14 k
==> omv1:  rubygem-bigdecimal x86_64 1.2.0-24.el7               base                 79 k
==> omv1:  rubygem-io-console x86_64 0.4.2-24.el7               base                 50 k
==> omv1:  rubygem-json       x86_64 1.7.7-24.el7               base                 75 k
==> omv1:  rubygem-psych      x86_64 2.0.0-24.el7               base                 77 k
==> omv1:  rubygem-rdoc       noarch 4.0.0-24.el7               base                318 k
==> omv1:  rubygems           noarch 2.0.14-24.el7              base                212 k
==> omv1:  virt-what          x86_64 1.13-5.el7                 base                 26 k
==> omv1: 
==> omv1: Transaction Summary
==> omv1: ================================================================================
==> omv1: Install  1 Package (+23 Dependent packages)
==> omv1: 
==> omv1: Total download size: 8.6 M
==> omv1: Installed size: 27 M
==> omv1: Downloading packages:
==> omv1: warning: /var/cache/yum/x86_64/7/puppetlabs-products/packages/hiera-1.3.4-1.el7.noarch.rpm: Header V4 RSA/SHA512 Signature, key ID 4bd6ec30: NOKEY
==> omv1: 
==> omv1: Public key for hiera-1.3.4-1.el7.noarch.rpm is not installed
==> omv1: warning: /var/cache/yum/x86_64/7/base/packages/dmidecode-2.12-5.el7.x86_64.rpm: Header V3 RSA/SHA256 Signature, key ID f4a80eb5: NOKEY
==> omv1: 
==> omv1: Public key for dmidecode-2.12-5.el7.x86_64.rpm is not installed
==> omv1: Public key for ruby-augeas-0.4.1-3.el7.x86_64.rpm is not installed
==> omv1: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
==> omv1: Total                                              811 kB/s | 8.6 MB  00:10     
==> omv1: Retrieving key from file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-7
==> omv1: Importing GPG key 0xF4A80EB5:
==> omv1:  Userid     : "CentOS-7 Key (CentOS 7 Official Signing Key) <security@centos.org>"
==> omv1:  Fingerprint: 6341 ab27 53d7 8a78 a7c2 7bb1 24c6 a8a7 f4a8 0eb5
==> omv1:  Package    : centos-release-7-1.1503.el7.centos.2.8.x86_64 (@CentOS/$releasever)
==> omv1:  From       : /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-7
==> omv1: 
==> omv1: Retrieving key from file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-puppetlabs
==> omv1: Importing GPG key 0x4BD6EC30:
==> omv1:  Userid     : "Puppet Labs Release Key (Puppet Labs Release Key) <info@puppetlabs.com>"
==> omv1:  Fingerprint: 47b3 20eb 4c7c 375a a9da e1a0 1054 b7a2 4bd6 ec30
==> omv1:  From       : /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-puppetlabs
==> omv1: 
==> omv1: Running transaction check
==> omv1: Running transaction test
==> omv1: Transaction test succeeded
==> omv1: Running transaction
==> omv1:   Installing : ruby-libs-2.0.0.598-24.el7.x86_64                           1/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Installing : 1:dmidecode-2.12-5.el7.x86_64                               2/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Installing : virt-what-1.13-5.el7.x86_64                                 3/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Installing : libyaml-0.1.4-11.el7_0.x86_64                               4/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Installing : rubygem-psych-2.0.0-24.el7.x86_64                           5/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Installing : rubygem-bigdecimal-1.2.0-24.el7.x86_64                      6/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Installing : rubygem-io-console-0.4.2-24.el7.x86_64                      7/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Installing : ruby-irb-2.0.0.598-24.el7.noarch                            8/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Installing : ruby-2.0.0.598-24.el7.x86_64                                9/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Installing : rubygems-2.0.14-24.el7.noarch                              10/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Installing : rubygem-json-1.7.7-24.el7.x86_64                           11/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Installing : rubygem-rdoc-4.0.0-24.el7.noarch                           12/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Installing : hiera-1.3.4-1.el7.noarch                                   13/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Installing : 1:ruby-shadow-2.2.0-2.el7.x86_64                           14/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Installing : hwdata-0.252-7.5.el7.noarch                                15/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Installing : libselinux-utils-2.2.2-6.el7.x86_64                        16/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Installing : pciutils-libs-3.2.1-4.el7.x86_64                           17/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Installing : pciutils-3.2.1-4.el7.x86_64                                18/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Installing : augeas-libs-1.1.0-17.el7.x86_64                            19/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Installing : ruby-augeas-0.4.1-3.el7.x86_64                             20/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Installing : net-tools-2.0-0.17.20131004git.el7.x86_64                  21/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Installing : 1:facter-2.4.3-1.el7.x86_64                                22/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Installing : libselinux-ruby-2.2.2-6.el7.x86_64                         23/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Installing : puppet-3.7.5-1.el7.noarch                                  24/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Verifying  : libselinux-ruby-2.2.2-6.el7.x86_64                          1/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Verifying  : rubygem-json-1.7.7-24.el7.x86_64                            2/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Verifying  : ruby-irb-2.0.0.598-24.el7.noarch                            3/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Verifying  : ruby-libs-2.0.0.598-24.el7.x86_64                           4/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Verifying  : net-tools-2.0-0.17.20131004git.el7.x86_64                   5/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Verifying  : augeas-libs-1.1.0-17.el7.x86_64                             6/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Verifying  : pciutils-libs-3.2.1-4.el7.x86_64                            7/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Verifying  : rubygem-psych-2.0.0-24.el7.x86_64                           8/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Verifying  : 1:facter-2.4.3-1.el7.x86_64                                 9/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Verifying  : pciutils-3.2.1-4.el7.x86_64                                10/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Verifying  : puppet-3.7.5-1.el7.noarch                                  11/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Verifying  : hiera-1.3.4-1.el7.noarch                                   12/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Verifying  : rubygem-rdoc-4.0.0-24.el7.noarch                           13/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Verifying  : virt-what-1.13-5.el7.x86_64                                14/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Verifying  : rubygems-2.0.14-24.el7.noarch                              15/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Verifying  : libselinux-utils-2.2.2-6.el7.x86_64                        16/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Verifying  : 1:ruby-shadow-2.2.0-2.el7.x86_64                           17/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Verifying  : rubygem-bigdecimal-1.2.0-24.el7.x86_64                     18/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Verifying  : 1:dmidecode-2.12-5.el7.x86_64                              19/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Verifying  : hwdata-0.252-7.5.el7.noarch                                20/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Verifying  : libyaml-0.1.4-11.el7_0.x86_64                              21/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Verifying  : rubygem-io-console-0.4.2-24.el7.x86_64                     22/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Verifying  : ruby-augeas-0.4.1-3.el7.x86_64                             23/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Verifying  : ruby-2.0.0.598-24.el7.x86_64                               24/24
==> omv1:  
==> omv1: 
==> omv1: Installed:
==> omv1:   puppet.noarch 0:3.7.5-1.el7                                                   
==> omv1: 
==> omv1: Dependency Installed:
==> omv1:   augeas-libs.x86_64 0:1.1.0-17.el7                                             
==> omv1:   dmidecode.x86_64 1:2.12-5.el7                                                 
==> omv1:   facter.x86_64 1:2.4.3-1.el7                                                   
==> omv1:   hiera.noarch 0:1.3.4-1.el7                                                    
==> omv1:   hwdata.noarch 0:0.252-7.5.el7                                                 
==> omv1:   libselinux-ruby.x86_64 0:2.2.2-6.el7                                          
==> omv1:   libselinux-utils.x86_64 0:2.2.2-6.el7                                         
==> omv1:   libyaml.x86_64 0:0.1.4-11.el7_0                                               
==> omv1:   net-tools.x86_64 0:2.0-0.17.20131004git.el7                                   
==> omv1:   pciutils.x86_64 0:3.2.1-4.el7                                                 
==> omv1:   pciutils-libs.x86_64 0:3.2.1-4.el7                                            
==> omv1:   ruby.x86_64 0:2.0.0.598-24.el7                                                
==> omv1:   ruby-augeas.x86_64 0:0.4.1-3.el7                                              
==> omv1:   ruby-irb.noarch 0:2.0.0.598-24.el7                                            
==> omv1:   ruby-libs.x86_64 0:2.0.0.598-24.el7                                           
==> omv1:   ruby-shadow.x86_64 1:2.2.0-2.el7                                              
==> omv1:   rubygem-bigdecimal.x86_64 0:1.2.0-24.el7                                      
==> omv1:   rubygem-io-console.x86_64 0:0.4.2-24.el7                                      
==> omv1:   rubygem-json.x86_64 0:1.7.7-24.el7                                            
==> omv1:   rubygem-psych.x86_64 0:2.0.0-24.el7                                           
==> omv1:   rubygem-rdoc.noarch 0:4.0.0-24.el7                                            
==> omv1:   rubygems.noarch 0:2.0.14-24.el7                                               
==> omv1:   virt-what.x86_64 0:1.13-5.el7                                                 
==> omv1: Complete!
==> omv1:  ---> bf169104271a
==> omv1: Removing intermediate container e44c9cf55dc5
==> omv1: Step 6 : RUN yum install -y hostname
==> omv1:  ---> Running in 6e5bd5a59223
==> omv1: Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
==> omv1: Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
==> omv1:  * base: centos.mirror.vexxhost.com
==> omv1:  * extras: mirror.gpmidi.net
==> omv1:  * updates: centos.mirror.vexxhost.com
==> omv1: Resolving Dependencies
==> omv1: --> Running transaction check
==> omv1: ---> Package hostname.x86_64 0:3.13-3.el7 will be installed
==> omv1: --> Finished Dependency Resolution
==> omv1: 
==> omv1: Dependencies Resolved
==> omv1: 
==> omv1: ================================================================================
==> omv1:  Package            Arch             Version               Repository      Size
==> omv1: ================================================================================
==> omv1: Installing:
==> omv1:  hostname           x86_64           3.13-3.el7            base            17 k
==> omv1: 
==> omv1: Transaction Summary
==> omv1: ================================================================================
==> omv1: Install  1 Package
==> omv1: 
==> omv1: Total download size: 17 k
==> omv1: Installed size: 19 k
==> omv1: Downloading packages:
==> omv1: Running transaction check
==> omv1: Running transaction test
==> omv1: Transaction test succeeded
==> omv1: Running transaction
==> omv1:   Installing : hostname-3.13-3.el7.x86_64                                   1/1
==> omv1:  
==> omv1:   Verifying  : hostname-3.13-3.el7.x86_64                                   1/1
==> omv1:  
==> omv1: 
==> omv1: Installed:
==> omv1:   hostname.x86_64 0:3.13-3.el7                                                  
==> omv1: 
==> omv1: Complete!
==> omv1:  ---> 2a20361f2d9d
==> omv1: Removing intermediate container 6e5bd5a59223
==> omv1: Step 7 : ADD run.sh /
==> omv1:  ---> 5493e62ac377
==> omv1: Removing intermediate container 84c8b7677f72
==> omv1: Step 8 : ADD test.pp /
==> omv1:  ---> 4f4d0023e612
==> omv1: Removing intermediate container 84cb691304a3
==> omv1: Step 9 : ENV FACTER_fqdn localhost
==> omv1:  ---> Running in 104fe3925dd6
==> omv1:  ---> 864c113d54b5
==> omv1: Removing intermediate container 104fe3925dd6
==> omv1: Step 10 : ENTRYPOINT puppet apply
==> omv1:  ---> Running in f6fe26141b19
==> omv1:  ---> cd19e4344bf1
==> omv1: Removing intermediate container f6fe26141b19
==> omv1: Step 11 : USER root
==> omv1:  ---> Running in 435752b9fb17
==> omv1:  ---> 86193e9815a8
==> omv1: Removing intermediate container 435752b9fb17
==> omv1: Step 12 : LABEL INSTALL docker run --rm -it --privileged -v /etc:/etc -v /var:/var -v /run:/run --net=host IMAGE
==> omv1:  ---> Running in d24f98a56936
==> omv1:  ---> 72f2dfbc4e07
==> omv1: Removing intermediate container d24f98a56936
==> omv1: Successfully built 72f2dfbc4e07

real    2m46.515s
user    0m10.036s
sys    0m1.678s

Once you’ve built the container, you should confirm its existence:

$ vscreen root@omv1
# docker images | grep spc
spc-puppet-apply    latest              72f2dfbc4e07        7 minutes ago       314.5 MB

The project repository tries to make your life easier, so it comes with a test.pp file that you can run to confirm puppet is working correctly. If you are using a regular host (not Atomic) you can run:

# mkdir /var/tmp/spc-puppet-apply/
# cp -a /vagrant/docker/spc-puppet-apply/test.pp /var/tmp/spc-puppet-apply/

or if you’re using an Atomic host, you can run:

# mkdir /var/tmp/spc-puppet-apply/
# cp -a /home/vagrant/sync/docker/spc-puppet-apply/test.pp /var/tmp/spc-puppet-apply/

since Oh-My-Vagrant can’t put files in /vagrant on an immutable Atomic host.

Finally, run the application with this monster docker command:

# docker run --rm -it --privileged -v /etc:/etc -v /var:/var -v /run:/run --net=host spc-puppet-apply /var/tmp/spc-puppet-apply/test.pp
Notice: Compiled catalog for omv1.example.com in environment production in 0.02 seconds
Notice: This is a puppet test!

Notice: /Stage[main]/Main/Notify[hello]/message: defined 'message' as 'This is a puppet test!'
Notice: Finished catalog run in 0.06 seconds

Since remembering that monster each time you want to do a simple puppet run is a bit of a monster, the Atomic project provides labels which make it so you can use the atomic run command instead.

Future work:

Interested parties are encouraged to test this, find any issues, and become comfortable with the idea of applications running from within containers. If running puppet with a puppet master is desirable, an spc-puppet-agent would be needed.

Happy Hacking,

James

Screencasts of Puppet-Gluster + Vagrant

I decided to record some screencasts to show how easy it is to deploy GlusterFS using Puppet-Gluster+Vagrant. You can follow along even if you don’t know anything about Puppet or Vagrant. The hardest part of this process was producing the actual videos!

If recommend first reading my earlier articles if you’re planning on following along:

Without any further delay, here are the screencasts:

Part 1: Intro, and provisioning of the Puppet server.

Part 2: Initial building of the Gluster hosts.

Part 3: Finishing the Gluster builds.

Part 4: GlusterFS client mounting and tests.

Part 5: Mixed bag of code, infrastructure tours, examples and other details.

I hope you enjoyed these videos. Thank you to the Gluster.org community for hosting them. If you liked these videos, please consider sponsoring some of my work, or making a donation!

As a side note, the only screencast tool that worked was gtk-recordmydesktop, however it deleted my second recording (which had to be re-recorded) and the audio stopped working one minute into my third recording (which had to then be separately recorded, and mixed in). Amazingly, pitivi was the only tool which worked to properly mix them together!

Happy Hacking,

James

PS: Please note, you may not sell, edit, redistribute, perform, or host these videos elsewhere without my permission. I especially don’t want to see them on youtube until Google let’s me unlink my youtube account! If you do want my permission to use these videos for something, contact me, and we can work something out. I’ll surely allow it if it’s not for something evil. If you’d rather have an interactive, live demo, let me know!

Vagrant clustered SSH and ‘screen’

Some fun updates for vagrant hackers… I wanted to use the venerable clustered SSH (cssh) and screen with vagrant. I decided to expand on my vsftp script. First read:

Vagrant on Fedora with libvirt

and

Vagrant vsftp and other tricks

to get up to speed on the background information.

Vagrant screen:

First, a simple screen hack… I often use my vssh alias to quickly ssh into a machine, but I don’t want to have to waste time with sudo-ing to root and then running screen each time. Enter vscreen:

# vagrant screen
function vscreen {
	[ "$1" = '' ] || [ "$2" != '' ] && echo "Usage: vscreen <vm-name> - vagrant screen" 1>&2 && return 1
	wd=`pwd`		# save wd, then find the Vagrant project
	while [ "`pwd`" != '/' ] && [ ! -e "`pwd`/Vagrantfile" ] && [ ! -d "`pwd`/.vagrant/" ]; do
		#echo "pwd is `pwd`"
		cd ..
	done
	pwd=`pwd`
	cd $wd
	if [ ! -e "$pwd/Vagrantfile" ] || [ ! -d "$pwd/.vagrant/" ]; then
		echo 'Vagrant project not found!' 1>&2 && return 2
	fi

	d="$pwd/.ssh"
	f="$d/$1.config"
	h="$1"
	# hostname extraction from user@host pattern
	p=`expr index "$1" '@'`
	if [ $p -gt 0 ]; then
		let "l = ${#h} - $p"
		h=${h:$p:$l}
	fi

	# if mtime of $f is > than 5 minutes (5 * 60 seconds), re-generate...
	if [ `date -d "now - $(stat -c '%Y' "$f" 2> /dev/null) seconds" +%s` -gt 300 ]; then
		mkdir -p "$d"
		# we cache the lookup because this command is slow...
		vagrant ssh-config "$h" > "$f" || rm "$f"
	fi
	[ -e "$f" ] && ssh -t -F "$f" "$1" 'screen -xRR'
}

I usually run it this way:

$ vscreen root@machine

which logs in as root, to machine and gets me (back) into screen. This is almost identical to the vsftp script which I explained in an earlier blog post.

Vagrant cssh:

First you’ll need to install cssh. On my Fedora machine it’s as easy as:

# yum install -y clusterssh

I’ve been hacking a lot on Puppet-Gluster lately, and occasionally multi-machine hacking demands multi-machine key punching. Enter vcssh:


# vagrant cssh
function vcssh {
	[ "$1" = '' ] && echo "Usage: vcssh [options] [user@]<vm1>[ [user@]vm2[ [user@]vmN...]] - vagrant cssh" 1>&2 && return 1
	wd=`pwd`		# save wd, then find the Vagrant project
	while [ "`pwd`" != '/' ] && [ ! -e "`pwd`/Vagrantfile" ] && [ ! -d "`pwd`/.vagrant/" ]; do
		#echo "pwd is `pwd`"
		cd ..
	done
	pwd=`pwd`
	cd $wd
	if [ ! -e "$pwd/Vagrantfile" ] || [ ! -d "$pwd/.vagrant/" ]; then
		echo 'Vagrant project not found!' 1>&2 && return 2
	fi

	d="$pwd/.ssh"
	cssh="$d/cssh"
	cmd=''
	cat='cat '
	screen=''
	options=''

	multi='f'
	special=''
	for i in "$@"; do	# loop through the list of hosts and arguments!
		#echo $i

		if [ "$special" = 'debug' ]; then	# optional arg value...
			special=''
			if [ "$1" -ge 0 -o "$1" -le 4 ]; then
				cmd="$cmd $i"
				continue
			fi
		fi

		if [ "$multi" = 'y' ]; then	# get the value of the argument
			multi='n'
			cmd="$cmd '$i'"
			continue
		fi

		if [ "${i:0:1}" = '-' ]; then	# does argument start with: - ?

			# build a --screen option
			if [ "$i" = '--screen' ]; then
				screen=' -o RequestTTY=yes'
				cmd="$cmd --action 'screen -xRR'"
				continue
			fi

			if [ "$i" = '--debug' ]; then
				special='debug'
				cmd="$cmd $i"
				continue
			fi

			if [ "$i" = '--options' ]; then
				options=" $i"
				continue
			fi

			# NOTE: commented-out options are probably not useful...
			# match for key => value argument pairs
			if [ "$i" = '--action' -o "$i" = '-a' ] || \
			[ "$i" = '--autoclose' -o "$i" = '-A' ] || \
			#[ "$i" = '--cluster-file' -o "$i" = '-c' ] || \
			#[ "$i" = '--config-file' -o "$i" = '-C' ] || \
			#[ "$i" = '--evaluate' -o "$i" = '-e' ] || \
			[ "$i" = '--font' -o "$i" = '-f' ] || \
			#[ "$i" = '--master' -o "$i" = '-M' ] || \
			#[ "$i" = '--port' -o "$i" = '-p' ] || \
			#[ "$i" = '--tag-file' -o "$i" = '-c' ] || \
			[ "$i" = '--term-args' -o "$i" = '-t' ] || \
			[ "$i" = '--title' -o "$i" = '-T' ] || \
			[ "$i" = '--username' -o "$i" = '-l' ] ; then
				multi='y'	# loop around to get second part
				cmd="$cmd $i"
				continue
			else			# match single argument flags...
				cmd="$cmd $i"
				continue
			fi
		fi

		f="$d/$i.config"
		h="$i"
		# hostname extraction from user@host pattern
		p=`expr index "$i" '@'`
		if [ $p -gt 0 ]; then
			let "l = ${#h} - $p"
			h=${h:$p:$l}
		fi

		# if mtime of $f is > than 5 minutes (5 * 60 seconds), re-generate...
		if [ `date -d "now - $(stat -c '%Y' "$f" 2> /dev/null) seconds" +%s` -gt 300 ]; then
			mkdir -p "$d"
			# we cache the lookup because this command is slow...
			vagrant ssh-config "$h" > "$f" || rm "$f"
		fi

		if [ -e "$f" ]; then
			cmd="$cmd $i"
			cat="$cat $f"	# append config file to list
		fi
	done

	cat="$cat > $cssh"
	#echo $cat
	eval "$cat"			# generate combined config file

	#echo $cmd && return 1
	#[ -e "$cssh" ] && cssh --options "-F ${cssh}$options" $cmd
	# running: bash -c glues together --action 'foo --bar' type commands...
	[ -e "$cssh" ] && bash -c "cssh --options '-F ${cssh}${screen}$options' $cmd"
}

This can be called like this:

$ vcssh annex{1..4} -l root

or like this:

$ vcssh root@hostname foo user@bar james@machine --action 'pwd'

which, as you can see, passes cssh arguments through! Can you see any other special surprises in the code? Well, you can run vcssh like this too:

$ vcssh root@foo james@bar --screen

which will perform exactly as vscreen did above, but in cssh!

You’ll see that the vagrant ssh-config lookups are cached, so this will be speedy when it’s running hot, but expect a few seconds delay when you first run it. If you want a longer cache timeout, it’s easy to change yourself in the function.

I’ve uploaded the code here, so that you don’t have to copy+paste it from my blog!

Happy hacking,

James